Chronology of Early Scholars of Islam
with color coding

(Caliphs from Sahabah, Isna-'Ashari(12)Imams, Fiqh Imams (4), Sihah-Sitta Imams, & others)

Compiled by Khalid Shaukat (of Moonsighting.com)

The chronology presented here gives an understanding of the time difference and generation gaps of famous names in early Islamic history, e.g., Imam Abu-Hanifah was early enough to have seen Sahabah, while Imam Malik, Imam Shafi'i, and Imam Ahmad bin-Hambal had not met or seen any Sahabah. Compare the time frame of Imam Bukhari & Imam Muslim with those of Imam Malik or Imam Abu-Hanifah. See the times of 12 Imams of Isna-'ashari faith (The Twelvers).

NAME BORN DIED REMARKS
Hadrat Abu-Bakar Siddiq 51 BH*/573 CE*, Makkah 13 AH*/23 August 634 (Tuesday) Medinah First Caliph (Khalifah) of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), Khalifatur-Rasool
Hadrat Umar ibn alKhattab 41 BH/582 Makkah 24 AH/7 November 644 (Sunday) Medinah Second Caliph (Khalifah), Title "Ameerul-Momineen" was first adopted
Uthman ibn Affaan 47 BH/577 Makkah 18 Zul-Hijja 35 AH/17 June 656 (Friday) Medinah Ameerul-Momineen, Third Caliph (Khalifah)
Imam Ali ibn Abi-Taalib(1) 13 Rajab 23BH/600 Makkah 21 Ramadhan 40AH/28 January 661 (Thur) Kufah Ameerul-Momineen, Fourth Caliph (Khalifah)
Imam Hasan ibn Ali (2) 15 Ramadan 3 AH/28 May 625 (Tue) Medinah Safar 49 or 50 AH/669 or 670 Medinah Ameerul-Momineen (5th Khalifah), First son of Ali & Fatimah, Grand Child of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), was probably poisoned
Mo'awiah ibn Abi-Sufian 12 BH/611 Makkah 60 AH/680 Dimashq 6th Khalifah (Brother-in-law of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh))
Imam Husain ibn Ali (3) 3 Sha'ban 4 AH/8 Jan 626 (Wednesday) Medinah 10 Muharram 61 AH/9 Oct 680 (Tue) Karbala, Iraq Shaheed-e-Karbala, Second son of Ali & Fatimah, Grand Child of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
Imam Ali Zainul-Abideen (4) 5 Sha'ban 38 AH/5 Jan 659 (Saturday) Medinah 25 Muharram 95 AH/20 Oct 713 (Friday) Medinah Son of Imam Husain
Imam Muhammad Baqir (5) 1 Rajab 57 AH/9 May 677 (Saturday) Medinah 7 Zul-Hijja 114 AH/28 Jan 733 (Wednesday) Medinah Son of Imam Ali Zainul-Abideen
Imam-1: Abu-Hanifa 80 AH/699 Kufah, Iraq 150 AH/767 Baghdad, Iraq Taabai, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), student of Imam Baqir & Imam Ja'far Sadiq
Imam Ja'far Sadiq (6) 17 Rabi-al-Awwal 83 AH/10 Apr 702 (Monday) Medinah 25 Shawwal 148 AH/13 Dec 765 (Fri) Medinah Taabai, Son of Imam Baqir. He was Imam of Fiqh Ja'fri (Jurisprudence)
Imam-2: Maalik 93 AH/712 Medinah 179 AH/795 Medinah Taba-Taabai, Compiler of Hadith & Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence), student of Imam Ja'far Sadiq
Imam Abu-Yusuf(Hanafi) 113 AH/731 Kufah, Iraq 187 AH/803 Baghdad, Iraq Taba-Taabai, Student of Abu-Hanifah, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence)
Up to the time of Imam Ja'far Sadiq, friends of Ali (Shi'aan-e-Ali) were not considered any different from other Muslims. Imam Ja'far Sadiq had two sons, Isma'il and Musa al-Kazim. Followers of Isma'il become the "Seveners" or "Ismailis. Followers of Musa al-Kazim become the "Twelvers" who believed that the lineage of Imam continued with Imam Musa al-Kazim. Beginning of Shi'ism was not documented before this time, but long after, when the concept of 12 Imams became the basis of Shi'as after the 12th Imam's disappearance in 878 CE.
Imam Musa Kazim (7) 7 Safar 129 AH/27 Oct 745 (Thurs) near Medinah 25 Rajab 183 AH/1 Sep 799 (Sunday) Kadhimiya Son of Imam Ja'far Sadiq, born in Al-Abwa 7 miles from Medinah, died in prison
Imam Muhammad (Hanafi) 132 AH/750 Wasit, Iraq 189 AH/805 Baghdad, Iraq Student of Imam Maalik, and Imam Abu-Yusuf (Jurisprudence)
Imam-3: Shafi'i 150 AH/767 Ghaza 204 AH/819 Egypt Student of Imam Maalik (Jurisprudence)
Imam Ali Reza (8) 11 Zul-Qa'da 153 AH/4 Nov 770 (Sunday) Medinah 17 Safar 203 AH/24 Aug 818 (Tue) Mash'had, Iran Son of Imam Musa Kazim
Imam-4: Ahmad ibn Hambal 164 AH/780 Baghdad 241 AH/855 Baghdad Student of Imam Shafi'i, Scholar of Fiqh (Jurisprudence)
Imam Bukhari 194 AH/810 Bukhara, Khurasan, Iran 256 AH/870 Samarqand Compiler of the most authentic Hadith book
Imam Jawwad Taqi (9) 10 Rajab 195 AH/8 April 811 (Tues) Medinah 30 Zul-Qa'da 220 AH/26 Nov 835 (Fri) Kadhimiya Full name was Imam Muhammad Jawwad Taqi Son of Imam Ali Reza
Imam Abu-Daood 202 AH/817 Sistan Iran 275 AH/889 Basrah, Iraq Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Muslim 206 AH/821 Nishapur, Iran 261 AH/875 Nishapur, Iran Compiler of 2nd most authentic Hadith book
Imam Ibn Maja 209 AH/824 Qazwin, Iran 273 AH/887 Qazwin, Iran Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Tirmidhi 209 AH/824 Tirmidh, Iran 279 AH/892 Tirmidh, Iran Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Nasaai 214 AH/829 Khurasan, Iran 303 AH/915 Egypt Scholar and Compiler of Hadith
Imam Ali Naqi (10) 5 Rajab 215 AH/28 Aug 830 (Sunday) Surba, Iraq 3 Rajab 254 AH/28 June 868 (Monday) Samarra, Iraq Son of Imam Muhammad Jawwad Taqi
Imam Hasan Askari (11) 8 Rabi-al-Thani 232 AH/1 Dec 846 (Wednesday) Samarra, Iraq 8 Rabi-al-Awwal 260 AH/1 Jan 874 (Friday) Samarra, Iraq Son of Imam Ali Naqi
Imam Muhammad Mehdi (12) 15 Sha'ban 255 AH/29 July 869 (Friday) Samarra, Iraq Disappeared at age 9 in 878 CE Son of Imam Hasan Askari. Followers of Isna-'ashari faith (The Twelvers) believe that he is still alive, hiding, and will re-appear near Judgment Day to establish Kingdom of Allah, to fill the world with equality and justice.

Notes:
BH = Before Hijra     AH = After Hijra     CE = Common Era
Chronolgy for Caliphs from Sahabah is taken from various books on Islamic history.
Isna-Ash'ari Imams chronology is basically taken from "Millat-e-Islamia ki Mukhtasar Tareekh" by Sarwat Saulat, Page 157.
Chronology for Fiqh Imams is taken from "Tazkira Imam Abu-Hanifah" by Jamil Ahmad Sharqpuri, various pages.
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